Friday, February 7, 2020
Globalization and Multinational Corporations - Essay Example The globalisation concept does not reveal the challenges leaving the companies to look at the positive side of the concept. There are very many management challenges due to different cultural issues and government intervention in different nations. As it will be discussed in the paper, countries differ in their levels of technology, development, availability of labour and resources and policies targeting trade and taxation. Both local and global companies normally do not have the right information concerning such issues thus end up making the wrong decisions in location and strategies (Karsten, 2000, pp.120-134). The best example of a multinational company to use is the Coca Cola Company as it has gone through very many challenges as it was in its race to meeting the global concept. Global strategy is defined in business as guidelines of an organisation to globalisation. For a firm to succeed in expanding globally it requires to define the extent to which it can expand its service and products provision. Local and global enterprises are facing a lot of challenges in expanding globally and this does not leave out the Coca Cola Company. The decisions Coca Cola makes on where it needs to locate its business are highly affected by the fact it usually defines how far it needs to allocate. Many multinational organisations that are failing expand unnecessarily. This occurs because of the lack of complete information on the different economic status of different nations. This limits them in attaining competitive advantage within the corporate world (Gupta, 2008, pp. 20-21). Strategic management Strategic management entails to plan and forecast, command, control, co-ordinate and organize. It is important for organizations to practice effective modes of management to ensure that at the end of the day they achieve their main objective; profit making. Though strategic management entails all this conditions, it is evident that they are not practised in all organisations globally. This is so because countries differ in their adoption of management strategies. This makes it hard for an organisation in a well established country that practises high management concepts to incorporate the concepts in another country that has not yet implemented them (Ghoshal, 1987, pp. 425-440). However, with Coca Cola being a multinational company for a very long time, it has identified that different areas need different ways of management though people are being urged to embrace global ways of management. Business courses and beliefs are very different in all nations. For instance, in developing countries, the business courses are outdated and it is only recently that they are trying to educate its people on the global strategic management principles. Many organisations that want to expand globally are misled by believing that all nations embrace the concept globalisation thus they set up their businesses in different localities only to find that they do not use the global strategies of management. This makes them to lag behind in making profits because they lack competent individuals to employ. It is evident that for a business to flourish there must be availability of labour within the area. Some multinational entities are forced to employ individuals from other countries which is a more expensive strategy because they demand a high pay for relocating from their native homes (Ghauri, 1995, pp.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Mobile phone and Landline phone Essay Phones are important because we rely on them to communicate with other people. Despite the cell phone cannot give you a clear, crystal clear connection as a landline phone. Landline phone is a device which we connect to the output of our homes and businesses. On the other hand, cell phones and mobile have the capacity and advanced technology. While they both perform the same basic function, there are significant differences between landline and mobile phones. There are many differences between landline and mobile phones. Convinces of having a cell phone is that you can have it on hand where ever you go. As for a landline you cannot take it with you. Cell phone have a GPS technology that can find your exact location or where you trying to go. Cell phone also can give you the chance to take live pictures or video camera whereas landline cannot. Cell phone has great features such as watch TV, MP3 players, can store all our contact information, keep track of our appointments, and important dates. The most important advantage of landlines for cell phones that 9-1-1 operators can better determine your location in an emergency. When you call 9-1-1 from a landline phone, the operator can find the exact address where the call originated. When you call 9-1-1 from a cell phone, on the other hand, the operator only receives information about your approximate latitude and longitude, which can be from 50 to 300 yards. If you are in an emergency and cannot speak to give 9-1-1 operator your location, have stationary can save your life. The similarity of landline and cell phone is the fact that they are both used for communication. One quality of the technology they are good for emergencies, for example, if you just need to call a friend or family, as the technology can do this. Both are good and reliable person depends on your needs. In conclusion, we know that cell phones are more comfortable and fashionable than landline. Phones have improved over the year; we have gone from the house phone to cell phones. Cell phones and home phones are similar in a couple of ways, but very different in many ways. Nowadays we see people on the streets with their cell phones, as many people know that its easier and cheaper
Monday, January 20, 2020
This source was published just after, and is referring to, the arrest of Rosa May Parks on December 1st, 1955. Parks was arrested for refusing to move from her bus seat for a white passenger when asked to by the racist bus driver, James Blake. The two had met before in 1943 when Parks had boarded Blake?s bus from the front door, which was for whites only. Blake told Parks to exit the bus and re-enter from the rear door where she was supposed to but as Parks got off of the bus, Blake drove off leaving her to walk home. This defiance by Parks had created a major turning point in civil rights by sparking the start of the civil rights movement. This source shows us what life was like for the black community, specifically black women, in the southern states of America. The source is a picture of a leaflet distributed in 1955 by the ?Women?s political council,? an anti-segregation group, calling for a boycott on the buses in Montgomery, Alabama. The involvement of women in politics only angered the white segregationists further. The boycott, which was originally intended to last only a single day, lasted for a total 381 days and it only ended when the American Supreme Court ruled that segregation on the buses was unconstitutional. This would have had a rather large impact on the business economy within Montgomery and possibly even Alabama. Montgomery subsequently changed its laws so that buses were integrated. Even though the supreme court ruled that segregation on the buses was unconstitutional it did not overturn all of the segregation laws. The leaflet repeats the phrase ?Don?t ride the buses to work, to town, to school of anywhere on Monday? to drive home the point to the reader that a major boycott was about to start. During... ... the Ku Klux Klan the people living in that area had taken on board the message of acting as a community and instead of hiding away in their houses from the convoy, which was what the Ku Klux Klan expected, many blacks came out into the streets and waved at the cars as they passed by. Most southern whites were ?pro segregation? and would have been outraged by the distribution of this leaflet. The fact it was distributed by women only added to the hate that the whites felt. To most of the southern ?pro segregation? whites, blacks were just slaves and subordinates. This level of solidarity and unity within the black community would have shocked all of the southern segregationists. I believe the whites also felt scared as the black community was beginning to have some power and influence over the economy, and I think that made most white segregationists feel insecure.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
The desire to serve the nation and protect the people as well as defend the Constitution is the primary duty of a soldier. The soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢job is a tough one and a big responsibility which consequently brings them to risk their lives, wealth and family for the sake of the nation. In the US Army, serving the Americans are delivered in different nature, there are varied forms of duties and roles of the soldiers that they portray. Some are tasked to perform in combat and some are assigned for logistic support or maybe as non-combatants who are commonly called non-commissioned officers.The Merriam-Webster dictionary defined non-commissioned officer as Ã¢â¬Å"a subordinate officer (as a sergeant) in the army, air force, or marine corps appointed from among enlisted personnelÃ¢â¬ . (MW, 2007) A non-commissioned officer or also known as an NCO or Noncom, is a member of the military force from enlisted rank who has not attended officer training program but performs as a lower-ranking s upport crew who also has authority over the other enlisted members. The NCOs are tasked to provide logistical support that is mostly administrative or even technical in nature.Most of their duties are in training programs including capability building for personnel or advisory to the officer corps. The NCOs are usually ranging from the lower level positions of a sergeant for the US army, corporals for the US marine and warrant officers while for the navies NCOs are mostly belonging as petty officers. Most military units regard NCOs as the support system or the Ã¢â¬Å"backboneÃ¢â¬ of their services. Their services are crucial in the development and well-being of the military officers esp.regarding performance of their duties as officers. The primary responsibilities are along administration and office management. There are also senior NCOs or whom they call Petty Chief Officers who mostly perform leadership concerns such as leading larger groups of members, mentoring of junior sol diers, and counselling senior members relative to their duties and responsibilities. Some NCOs perform the highest levels of service such as advisory in all concerns regarding the welfare or well-being and utilization of the enlisted members.As a Noncommissioned Officer, there is a difference in the way other people relate with greater expectations having to assume more responsibilities. Such change in the way people treat an NCO is brought about by the fact that an NCO is a member of a Noncommissioned Officer Corps known as the Ã¢â¬Å"backbone of the ArmyÃ¢â¬ . (Pukansky, 1999) NCOs live by codes of honor as they perform in delivering their duties and accomplishing the mission. These codes of honor are exemplified in the NCO Creed.It identifies the values or principles that are essential in effectively carrying out responsibilities as noncommissioned officers and leaders. NCOs are committed to excellence in service. One of the creed statements talk about professionalism Ã¢â¬Å"No one is more professional than I. Ã¢â¬ As a professional, an NCO must live by the guiding standards and exhibit the army values that others may follow. Building leadership qualities is expressed in the creed. Ã¢â¬Å"I am the non-commissioned officer, a leader of soldiersÃ¢â¬ .Effective team work is also the battlecry of the NCOs apart from the other qualities that are expected from a leader that are essential in carrying out the role of an NCO. NCOs are also expected to humbly recognize the roles of those members in the NCO corps who served and the relevance of the group in the development of the US Army. The creed also called for selflessness by putting the welfare and development of the others before oneself as part of its commitment to serve the army. Competence is another area that an NCO must believe in. The creed believes that Ã¢â¬Å"competence is my matchwordÃ¢â¬ .Demonstrating high level of competence and proficiency breeds trust and confidence from the members of the army. An NCO is expected to display competence and look for opportunities to further develop the skills and talents that competent leaders possess. The inherent role of an NCO must recognize the welfare of the soldiers. This is one major responsibility that an NCO must recognize by heart. To serve the other soldiers and aim for their well being must come first and place their needs above oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own. The NCOs are expected to guard the soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ well-being and defend them at almost any costApart from the above desired qualities, the NCO Creed believes that an NCO must also possess the following characteristics : to be fair and impartial when endorsing rewards and punishment, constantly and consistently provide communication to soldiers, exhibit loyalty to peers and seniors, display integrity and moral courage and most of all believe that NCOs are professionals and leaders. NCOs may neither have undergone officer training program in the military nor have commissioned offi cial ranks as soldiers in the military force, however, they serve better purposes in the welfare and development of the soldiers.The NCO corps have been truly recognized by the many as the Ã¢â¬Å"backbone of the ArmyÃ¢â¬ . Hence, they are essential in the military workforce as drivers in motivating soldiers and bringing the whole US Army into excellence. b. ) Why should we, as leaders, live by the 7 Army Core Values (Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor, Integrity, and Personal Courage) on a daily basis. Most of the American people look up to the army not only as protectors or professionals of arms but as men of integrity. These soldiers are expected by the people to exhibit values that are inherent in being nation protectors and defenders.Lt. Gen. Jackson said Ã¢â¬Å"What is life without honor? Degradation is worse than death. Ã¢â¬ This statement underpins the importance of integrity as a soldier. The US Army observed the seven (7) army values that an American soldi er must live by. (US Recruiting, 2006) It is strongly believed that the cornerstone of the best military force is the values that they possess. The US Army is a values-based group that highlights the importance of teamship. Army Values will help build a strong, cohesive organization that, in turn, will become a source of strength and institutional knowledge for all the members of the military force.The ArmyÃ¢â¬â¢s profession is neither easy nor ordinary. There is always a need for team work in dealing with complex and risky conditions. For the group to achieve the mission, there is a need for a need to set common goals and principles that will guide each soldier in performing their duties. These goals and guiding principles must reflect the values of a dignified soldier and the values of the nation. Since the whole nation is counting on each of the soldiers, the army values must be embodied in the daily undertaking of each individual and as soldiers getting ready for the future, t hese values shall guide the way.As former Army Chief of Staff General Dennis J. Reimer stated, Ã¢â¬Å"The Army is, at heart, a community of Active and Reserve Soldiers, civilian employees and their families. Communities thrive when people care about one another, work with one another and trust one another. I believe today's Army carries within it this spirit and sense of community. . . . I am optimistic about the future and convinced that because we hold tight to a strong tradition of commitment to one another, we are and will remain the best Army on Earth. Ã¢â¬ (Forscom, 2007)A soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s loyal allegiance to protect the nation is coupled with core values which are deemed to be of equal importance to protecting the nation. These values is expressed via the acronym LDRSHP, these are : Loyalty, Duty, Respect, Selfless Service, Honor and Personal Courage. These values are not only statements on how soldiers should behave but serve as their personal identity. These core values define who they are. The core values and their significance in the present soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s life are the following: first and foremost is Loyalty.Loyalty means genuine devotion to a person or other people _it maybe a unit or family or the army. Showing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s support to a person, superior or even an activity despite its flaws or negative views from peers or subordinates calls for audacity and loyalty. A loyal soldier is one who supports or defends the leadership and stands up for other soldier. He/she will sacrifice for the leader, his country and its people. The US military core value states: Ã¢â¬Å"Bear true faith and allegiance to the US Constitution, the Army, your unit, and other soldiers. Ã¢â¬ This shows unquestionable loyalty to its country and its heritage.A member of the army who exhibits loyalty prioritizes duties according to the highest where the Constitution is its foremost consideration, the Army as the second priority including the unit, and lastly the self. An army who shows faithfulness to the organization always puts his own welfare the least of all. Showing allegiance also means carrying out the mission and orders from superior without showing personal critical perspective towards its superiors. Another critical characteristic of a loyal soldier is its faithfulness towards his/her fellow soldiers that may consequently bring about confidence and trust from its fellow soldier.It is this kind of devotion that heightens cohesiveness or bond among the soldiers. An ideal exemplar of an action of loyalty is the case about Private Ernest West, a soldier in the L Company. His story happened in 1952 concerning his selflessness and allegiance towards his fellow soldiers by rescuing them from an ambush. Private West, despite the difficulty he encountered during the attack wherein he suffered serious wounds losing one of his eyes. His loyalty to his fellow armies inspired everyone in his infantry which brought him up towards the ladder of succes s. Another army core value is Duty.Duty is defined as a work that you are obliged to perform for moral or legal reasons. It means it is a legal or moral obligation to complete assigned task to the fullest of your ability. An army must do what needs to be done without being told to do it. This requires willingness to accept full responsibility for a soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Duty is not time bound such as putting in time to work from 8 a. m. to 5 p. m. in a day but it is a selfless service to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s country, unit, family and people. The saying Ã¢â¬Å"I regret that I have but one life to give to my countryÃ¢â¬ is an example of an indisputable commitment to duty.Being dutiful means carrying out its jobs to the best of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability and sacrifice its needs in pursuing excellence. The duty which Private Sasser has showed is one of the most inspiring characteristics of duty. Sasser was in the force as a medical aide. His company was making an air assault when it was under attack by enemies which swept numerous casualties. He offered to assist the wounded without hesitation, despite the wounds he suffered during the encounter. Sasser did not showed he was immobilized due to the serious wounds in his legs.Instead of accepting medical attention, he ran through a barrage of rocket and automatic weapons fire to aid casualties of the initial attack and, after giving them urgently needed treatment, continued to search for other wounded. Despite two additional wounds immobilizing his legs, he dragged himself through the mud toward another soldier 100 meters away. Although in agonizing pain and faint from loss of blood, he continued to save the lives of other people. With this, he was conferred with the medal of honors. According to Gen. Bruce Clarke, despite of age or grade soldiers must be treated as mature individuals.Soldiers are engaged in a dignified occupation and honorable profession that they deserve to be treated with dignity and honor. Respect is a n important value that an army must possess. The golden rule best exemplifies the idea of respect. In the US soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s code, Ã¢â¬Å"Treat people as they should be treated. Ã¢â¬ A soldier is expected to treat other people with dignity and respect. This allows him/her to gain the same treatment from other people. This begins with a basic understanding that each and everyone is worthy to be respected as human beings. A leader of the army will not gain respect if he/she shows superiority over his subordinates.Respecting fellow soldiers means having faith towards them in fulfilling their jobs and duties without necessarily showing them who is the boss. To show respect to others, safety and welfare of others is its prime consideration. However, it is also important to nourish oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self physically in order to promote health and well being of the school. Discrimination, harassment and inequity are the opposites of respect which may block cohesiveness and trust towards each member of an organization. Selfless Service is beyond a soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s consideration of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self.The US army pledged to Ã¢â¬Å"Put the welfare of the nation, the Army, and your subordinates before your own. Ã¢â¬ The sake of the nation comes first. The priority is always the needs of the country or the people. Serving oneÃ¢â¬â¢s country is about putting oneÃ¢â¬â¢s duty above oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own interest or without having in mind what one can gain. When a soldier takes action it must be for the good of the others and not to increase his/her standing. SPC Fitzmaurice received a medal of honor when he displayed selfless service in Vietnam on 23 March. The courageous deed was realized when he threw his personal safety above the others by shielding fellow soldiers.Fitzmaurice suffered multiple wounds and partial loss of sight. SPC Fitzmaurice's heroism in action at the risk of his life contributed significantly to the successful defense of the position and resulted in savi ng the lives of a number of his fellow soldiers. Doing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s duty in the army is doing service before oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self. What it does mean for selfless-service is to complete oneÃ¢â¬â¢s duty prior to its own comfort zones. The welfare or well being of the entire nation and the organization come before the soldierÃ¢â¬â¢s own. Selfless service may be confused with loyalty and duty as they are closely related.This is an indication on the importance of accepting all the Army values and ignoring none. Honor is said to be a guide for character and conduct. It is something one earns. As we know, one of the highest military awards is the medal of honors. This is conferred to soldiers who displayed the virtue of living up to the values of the army. Honor starts with knowing what is ethically right and wrong and demonstrating what is right. This should begin with sincerity in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and maintaining integrity and honesty to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s daily work as a soldier. It take s a good soldier to bring honor. As Gen. Jackson once said Ã¢â¬Å"What is life without honor?Degradation is worse than death. Ã¢â¬ As the US army code puts it : Ã¢â¬Å"Do whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right, legally and morallyÃ¢â¬ . Integrity is a virtue a soldier should possess. This is something to be developed by conforming to moral ethics. A good soldier has moral standards and truthful in adhering to these principles both in word and deed. It is not enough to know what is right, but by demonstrating the right makes a soldier earn the trust and confidence of others. Military men of integrity act according to the dictates of the moral ethics and not according to decisions that is convenient for the moment or that temporarily works for a certain situation.A good soldier possesses personal courage i. e. in physical and moral planes. Bravery is one of the basic characteristic that a soldier must possess. A child when asked about bravery always cites a soldier as an example. This means that co urage is attached to the identity of a soldier. Building a noble character of a soldier means developing a physical and moral courage that are required to combat the conflicts and demands in their jobs. It means taking the risks in war despite the fear of being killed. As personal courage is not the absence of fear but it is the ability to face danger and take action on what is needed.Personal courage does not only mean the ability to combat the conflicts but it also embodies the idea about taking responsibility for the decisions and actions made. Courage also involves the ability to do self-assessment and confront new ideas, and even to the extent to change. Leaders are expected to make decisions that involve risk and often take a stand during times of stress. Personal courage has long been associated with the military force where several narratives about the dangers and hardships that soldiers have successfully faced are notable.Personal courage is not the absence of fear but it i s taking positive action in spite of the fear. Physical courage means overcoming fears of bodily harm and still being able to do your duty. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the bravery that allows a soldier to operate in combat in spite of the fear of wounds or death. It is what gets the soldier at airborne school out the aircraft door. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s what allows an infantryman to assault a bunker to save his buddies or a medic to treat the wounded while under fire. With physical courage, it is a matter of enduring physical duress and, at times, risking personal safety.Private Silvestre S. Herrera is a good replica on the fighting spirit and courage which are duly recognized by the higher authorities. Private Herrera was conferred with the medal of honors last 2006 due to his courage and fighting spirit in battling the explosives that burst before him hitting his leg. Despite intense pain and the unchecked bleeding of his wounds he lay in the minefield, firing to suppress the enemy while others of his plat oon skirted the minefield to flank the enemy position. His courage and fighting spirit reflected honor upon his adopted nation and that of his birth.Private Herrera received the Medal of Honor These values are not only a statement for how soldiers must behave; these are doctrines that tell them who they are. Army leaders emulate these values because they are the standard for action. Such standard for behavior must remain to be the foundation of trust which the Americans expects from the military (Snider and Watkins, 2000). In relation to this, the military principles rest on the foundation of the seven Army Values. These values reflect the standards to which the whole military force adheres to, regardless of its mission.In the same way as these Values lead the way thoughts are formed, words are acted, and professional principles of every soldier, so will those same values guide the actions of those who intends to support and follow them. The Americans hold the entire military force to a higher level, not only the front-line combatants. All the priorities time tabled for implementation and the efficiencies gained or the improvements in quality achieved are attainable in keeping with the Army Values. This transformation brings with it many challenges to overcome.However, it is still recommendable to continually evaluate if successes of the organization are due to adherence to these values. The United States Army serves around the world in the many forms of missions and roles. Although several reasons are known why they join the force, at some level one of them is the desire to serve the nation and the mechanism in perfecting their service is through these values. Hence, these seven values are the main principles that must guide each soldier in their daily undertakings which will lead them towards excellence in service to the people and the nation._____________________________ Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dan gerous and dreadful. Ã¢â¬â Samuel Johnson References Don M. Snider and Gayle L. Watkins, Ã¢â¬Å"The Future of the Army Profession: A Need for Renewal and Redefinition,Ã¢â¬ Parameters (August 2000): 5-20. Field Arty (1989). A Brief History of the Backbone of the Army. (Aug. 1989) pp. 17-22. Per. Condensed version of handout at SGM Academy. Forscom . (2007, June 27 updated). Call to Duty : Army Values. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from http://www. forscom. army.mil/reeng/Army%20Part1%20Values. htm U. S. Army Recruiting Battalion. (2006, January 18 updated). Army Values Training for Future Soldier Training Program Soldiers. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from http://www. usarec. army. mil/1stbde/1obn/FS/values. html Merriam-Webster Dictionary (2007). Retrieved from http://www. m-w. com/dictionary/noncommissioned+officer. htm on November 12, 2007 Pukansky, Michael W. (1999) The Army Chaplaincy. Reflections on Leadership. Retrieved from http://www. usachcs. army. mil/TACarchive/AC71M/refle ctions_on_leadership. htm on November 13, 2007.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Have you ever heard of light pollution? Its the overuse of light at night. Nearly everyone on Earth has experienced it. Cities are bathed in light, but lights also encroach on the wilderness and rural landscapes as well. A study of light pollution around the world made in 2016 showed that at least a third of people on Earth have skies that are so light-polluted they cant see the Milky Way from their locations.Ã One of the most astonishing discoveries the astronauts on the International Space Station share with us is the widespread light pollution that covers our landscapes with the yellowish-white glow of lights. Even at sea, fishing boats, tankers, and other ships light up the darkness.Ã The Effects of Light Pollution Because of light pollution, our dark skies are disappearing. This is because lights on homes andÃ businesses are sending light up to the sky. In many places, all but the brightest stars are washed out by the glare of lights. Not only is this simply wrong, but it also costs money. Shining them UP to the sky to light the stars wastes electricity and the energy sources (mainly fossil fuels) we need to create electrical power.Ã In recent years, medical science has also looked into the link between light pollution and too much light at night. The results show that human health and wildlife are being harmed by the glare of lights during the night time hours. Recent studies have linked exposure to too much light at night to several serious diseases, including breast cancer and prostate cancer. In addition, the glare of light pollution interferes with a persons ability to sleep, which has other health consequences. Other studies show that the glare of lights at night, particularly on city streets, can result in accidents for both drivers and pedestrians blinded by the light of electronic billboards and superbright headlights on other cars. In many areas, light pollution is contributing to tragic loss of wildlife habitat, interfering with bird migrations and affecting reproduction of many species. This has reduced some populations of wildlife and threatens others.Ã For astronomers, light pollution is a tragedy. No matter whether you are a beginning observer or an experienced professional, too much light at night washes out the view of stars and galaxies. In many places on our planet, people have rarely seen the Milky WayÃ in their night skies. What Can All of us Do to Prevent Light Pollution? Of course, we all know that lighting is needed in some places at night for safety and security. No one is saying to turn off ALL the lights. To solve the problems caused by light pollution, smartÃ people in industry and science research have been contemplating ways to have our safety but also eliminate the waste of light and power.Ã The solution theyve come up with sounds simple: to learn proper ways to use lighting. These include lighting places that only need illumination at night. People can reduce a LOT of light pollution by shining lights DOWN to the places where they are needed. And, in some places, if light isnt needed, we CAN just simply switch them off. In most cases, proper lighting not only preserves safety and reduces the harm to our health and to wildlife, but it also saves money in lower electrical bills and lowers the use of fossil fuels for power.Ã We CAN have dark skies and safe lighting. Learn more about what YOU can do to light safely and reduce light pollution from the International Dark Sky Association, one of the worlds foremost groups seeking to solve light pollution issues and preserve safety and quality of life. The group has many useful resources for city planners, and both urban and country dwellers interested in reducing the glare of lights at night. They also sponsored the creation of a video called Losing the Dark, which illustrates many of the concepts discussed here. Its available free for download by anyone wishing to use it in their planetarium, classroom, or lecture hall.
Friday, December 27, 2019
The early history of the Earth-moon system was a very violent one. It came just over a billion or so years after the Sun and planets began to form. First, the Moon itself was created by the collision of a Mars-sized object with the infant Earth. Then, about 3.8 billion years ago, both worlds were bombarded by debris left over from the creation of the planets. Mars and Mercury still bear the scars from their impacts, too. On the Moon, the giant Orientale Basin remains as a silent witness to thisÃ period, called the Late Heavy Bombardment. During that time, the Moon was pummeled with objects from space, and volcanoes flowed freely as well. The History of Orientale Basin The Orientale basin was formed by a giant impact some 3.8 billion years ago. It is what planetary scientists call a multi-ring impact basin. The rings formed as shock waves rippled across the surface as a result of the collision. The surface was heated and softened, and as it cooled, the ripple rings were frozen into place in the rock. The 3-ringed basin itself is about 930 kilometers (580 miles) across. The impact that createdÃ Orientale played an important role in the early geologic history of the Moon. It was extremely disruptive and changed itÃ in several ways: fractured rock layers, the rocks melted under the heat, and the crust was shaken hard. The event blasted out material that fell back to the surface. As it did, older surface features were destroyed or covered up. The layers of ejecta help scientists determine the age of surface features. Because so many objects slammed into the young Moon, its a very complex story to figure out. GRAIL Studies Orientale The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) twin probes mapped variations in the Moons gravitational field. The data they gathered tell scientists about the interior arrangement of the MoonÃ and provided details for maps of the concentrations of mass. GRAIL performed close-up gravity scans of the Orientale basin to help scientists figure out the concentrations of mass in the region. What the planetary science team wanted to figure out was the size of the original impact basin. So, they searched for indications of the initial crater. It turned out that the original splashdown region was somewhere between the size of the two innermost rings surrounding the basin. There is no trace of the rim of that original crater, however. Instead, the surface rebounded (bounced up and down) after the impact, and the material that fell back to the Moon obliterated any trace of the original crater. The main impact excavated about 816,000 cubic miles of material. Thats about 153 times the volume of the Great Lakes in the U.S. It all fell back to the Moon, and along with the surface melting, pretty well wiped out the original impact crater ring. GRAIL Solves a Mystery One thing that intrigued scientists before GRAIL did its work was the lack of any interior material from the Moon that would have flowed up from beneath the surface. This would have happened as the impactor punched into the Moon and dug deep beneath the surface. It turns out that the initial crater likely collapsed very quickly, which sent material around the edges flowing and tumbling into the crater. That would have covered up any mantle rock that might have flowed up as a result of the impact. This explains why the rocks in Orientale basin have a very similar chemical make up as the other surface rocks on the Moon. The GRAIL team used the spacecrafts data to model how the rings formed around the original impact site and will continue to analyze the data to understand the details of the impact and its aftermath. The GRAIL probes were essentially gravitometers that measured minute variations of the gravitational field of the Moon as they passed over during their orbits. The more massive a region is, the greater its gravitational pull. These were the first in-depth studies of the gravitational field of the Moon. The GRAIL probes were launched in 2011 and ended their mission in 2012. The observations they made help planetary scientists understand the formation of impact basins and their multiple rings elsewhere on the Moon, and on other worlds in the solar system. Impacts have played a role throughout solar system history, affecting all planets, Ã¢â¬â¹including Earth.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
The purpose of the Bay of Pigs Invasion was to overthrow Fidel Castro as leader of Cuba and help stabilize the Cuban government. Fidel Castro started the MR-26-7, an anti-Batista group. At the time, Batista was the so called president and he claimed to be running a disciplined democracy.The people saw this as a dictatorship takeover. Castro ran the group as a clandestine cell system with ten members in each cell and they did not know the whereabouts or activities of the other cells. He was building his army to take Batista down. Between 1956 and 1959, Castro lead his Guerrilla army against BatistaÃ¢â¬â¢s forces. Batista became unpopular and by 1958 they were sent in a retreat. By December 31, 1958 he resigned. In addition, he fled Cuba, taking with him roughly $300,000,000. Therefore, the presidency fell to CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s candidate, Manuel Urrutia Lleo, while most of the cabinet was made up of MR-26-7 members. Castro took the role of Prime Minister on February 16, 1959. His first order of business was to get rid of presidential elections, the same as the man he took down. This was the start of Fidel Castro s reign. The United States wanted to make Cuba into a democratic country and stated that Castro was going to lead the nation into a communist or dictatorship country. America needs to cut the communists off and have a country that had the same political views, a democracy, and one that we would not have to fight in order to keep the country safe. This idea to invade Cuba andShow MoreRelatedThe Bay of Pigs Invasion1313 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Bay of Pigs Invasion Background The Bay of Pigs invasion of April, 1961 is considered to be one of the unsuccessful covert military invasions of the 20th century. In 1959, the Cuban revolutionist Fidel Castro overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista through an armed conflict that lasted nearly five and a half years. Castro and his comrades were Socialists and they believed a Communist social system would better suit their nee. In order to fulfill this agenda, the new Cuban governmentRead MoreThe Bay Of Pigs Invasion1147 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLouis Tullo Mrs. Forsyth U.S. History II 30 March 2016 Bay of Pigs Invasion Bays in pigs invasion is a cold war planned and fought by American president John F. Kennedy in an attempt to overthrow in early 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. This came after Fidel Castro overthrew the then Cuban president Fulgencio Batista. The president was corrupt and had allies in the United States allowing the Americans to control the Cuban economy (Khan 21). The incoming Castro did the opposite by disapproving the Americans and resistedRead MoreThe Bay Of Pigs Invasion2240 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagescannot change the law of nature and they know it.Ã¢â¬ stated Allen Dulles, the fifth director of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Bay of Pigs Invasion was an encounter that occurred on April 17, 1961, between Cuban exiles, armed and trained by the American Central Intelligence Agency and the military forces of Fidel Castro. With the failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion the United States found itself more involved in the Cold War and experienced a new era in the military, political, and intelligen ceRead MoreThe Bay Of Pigs Invasion1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChapter 1 - The Bay of Pigs Invasion - 1961 Figure 1The above image is a primary source image of Fidel Castro (right) an infamous Cuban dictator, and Che Guevara who played a number of key roles within the Cuban government. This photo was taken in 1961, during which the Bay of Pigs Invasion took place. The photo was taken by Alberto Korda, a Cuban photographer. This photo allows us to peer into the past and see Castro presumably leading Cuban troops. There is a large possibility of bias when consideringRead MoreThe Bay Of Pigs Invasion1108 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Bay of Pigs is an inlet of the Gulf of Cazones located approximately 97 miles southeast of Havana (Capital of Cuba). The Bay of Pigs Invasion is one of the United States biggest invasion fails in history. The invasion was meant to overthrow communist Cuba and bring Fidel CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s power to an end. This was obviously a fail, because as we now know, Fidel had been in power until 2008, and now his brother Raul Castro is the president. The blame for this fail is o n the Central Intelligence AgencyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Bay Of Pigs Invasion2708 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesanalysis the Bay of Pigs invasion that occurred 17 April 1961, to use the Butterfly effect and to introduce Intelligence Platforms not utilized before and during the invasion, to suggest a alternate outcome to the invasion if these factors were applied properly or if other events never happened. The Bay of Pigs resulted in the failure to remove Fidel Castro from Power. If the CIA used Human Intelligence properly and if the U-2 Spy Plane program was not revealed to the World, the invasion may haveRead MoreThe Bay Of Pigs Invasion Of Cuba1036 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba by the United States on April 17, 1961 was in the planning stages before John F. Kennedy became America s President. The plan was made by the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) during the Eisenhower years, and JFK supported the decision with modifications. KennedyÃ¢â¬â¢s goal was to remove Fidel Castro from power of Cuba, cut his ties with the Soviet Union and establish a friendly government of the United States. He wanted the invasion to seem just plainly anti-CastroRead MoreThe Bay Of Pigs Invasion Into Cuba2257 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesThe Bay of Pigs invasion into Cuba can be seen as one of the most important political decisions in the history of the United States. Four months after John F. Kennedy took office as the thirty fifth President of the United States, he was blamed for the failed invasion of the Bay of Pigs. The failure was due to the lack of bad advice he received and then used to put into making his decision to invade. The decisions he made showed that the United States President and his Joint Chiefs were far fromRead MoreThe Invasion Of Cuba During The Bay Of Pigs2281 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesunsuccessful invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs, that is located on the southern coast of Cuba about 95 miles southeast of Havana, was one of miscommunication, mismanagement, and horrible execution (Bay of Pigs 378). The responsibility for the failed invasion falls right on the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) and a president by the name of John F. Kennedy. The intention of the invasion was to assault communist Cuba and put a halt to Fidel Castro. Ironically, 39 years after the Bay of Pigs, Fidel CastroRead MoreThe Cuban Missile Crisis : The Bay Of Pigs Invasion1272 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesProceeding to the Cuban Missile Crisis, American relationships with Castro were previously tense by the Bay of Pigs invasion (196 1) where the United States made an unorthodox action towards Cuba by financing and sending insurgent Cubans to help aid in overthrowing and attacking CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s supporters and Castro himself0000000. The Bay of Pigs was unsuccessful. This eventual lead to CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s joining with communist Soviet Union and leaving Castro cautious of American plans for Cuba. CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s suspicions